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WCPC Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition 2016

12th Annual Technical Conference

Monday 07th - Tuesday 08th November 2016

Swansea Marriott Hotel,
Swansea, SA1 3SS

Keynote Speaker: Ray Gibbs - BA (Hons) FCA CEO, Haydale Graphene Industries plc

Conference Registration

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The conference is an opportunity to view the latest WCPC research in printing technology, to discuss the findings with researchers and to network with like-minded industrial delegates. Each presentation will be a technical paper based on latest results and analysis derived from controlled experiments and numerical models.

The conference is hosted by the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC) in association with icmPrint Ltd. WCPC is a world renowned research centre dedicated to advancing the understanding and productivity of all aspects of printing and coating. WCPC enhances the understanding of the printing and coating processes, exploits novel manufacturing using printing and applies its scientific findings to the benefit of its global industrial partners. With extensive experience in packaging and graphics printing the WCPC has built on this knowledge and become a centre for functional materials, plastic electronics and bio printing.

The conference will be held at the Swansea Marriott Hotel, Swansea, SA1 3SS. The venue has ample free parking and accomodation is avaiable at a reduced rate up until 11th Septemeber 2016 - Book the group rate for the conference accommodation here.

Registration before 11th September 2016 is available at the early bird rate of £400 + VAT. The conference registration fee after 11th September 2016 is £450 + VAT. WCPC associates will have one complimentary delegate seat and will be entitled to a discounted rate for any additional delegates that are registered and paid via the associate company. (The discounted rate will be £300 + VAT per delegate).

The delegate registration fee covers conference attendance, lunches, refreshments and conference dinner. (No accommodation is included in the fee and the booking of the accommodation is the responsibility of the delegate).

If you would like to promote your service or product to delegates, table top exhibitor space will be available in the refreshment and lunch area. Each exhibitor will be allocated an area to take a table top & roll up display. As space is limited, we would advise potential exhibitors to make a booking as early as possible. The cost of exhibiting is £250 + VAT in addition to the delegate fee of £450 + VAT.

Conference Agenda

Monday 07th November

09:00 Registration & Coffee
09:30 - 09:45 Welcome,
David Gethin, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
09:45 - 10:30 Keynote Presentation: Graphene and other Nano materials - Short Term Commercial Applications for the Printing Market,
Ray Gibbs BA(Hons) FCA CEO, Haydale Graphene Industries plc
10:30 - 11:00 Challenges in Printing Smooth Functional Layers,
Tatyana Korochkina, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
11:00 - 11:30 Networking Break
11:30 - 12:00 Nano-materials Deposition and the Morphology of the Subsequent Deposits,
David Shaw, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
12:00 - 12:30 Characterisation of Ink Transfer for Functional and Graphic Flexo Printing Applications,
Sakulrat Foulston, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
12:30 - 13:00 Investigation into Rewetting and Removal of Flexographically Printed Ink Films,
Andrea Greenacre, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
13:00 - 13:30 The Science behind Flexographic Printing Uniformity,
Miles Morgan, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
13:30 - 14:30 Lunch
14:30 - 15:15 Printed Electronics and Biosensors at INTI-CMNB,
Leandro N Monsalve, Centre for Micro and Nanoelectronics (CMNB) of the National Institute for Industrial Technology (INTI) in Argentina
15:15 - 15:45 Networking Break
15:45 - 16:15 Screen Printing of Functional Materials and Sensors,
Sarah-Jane Potts, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
16:15 - 16:45 Fine Network of Conductive Tracks on Flexible Substrate,
John Lau, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
16:45 - 17:15 Optical Method for Measurement of the Thickness and the Profile of Printed conductive Inks in Flexographic Production Machines,
Marcelo D. Sallese, Universidad Technologica Nacional, Argentina
17:15 Round up of the day and close
19:30 Conference Dinner at The Swansea Waterfront Museum

Tuesday 08th November

09:00 - 09:45 Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing Pilot Line with In-line Optical Metrology for Quality Control and Laser Patterning for Mass Production of OPVs,
Argiris Laskarakis, Head of the Organic Electronics Group of the Nanotechnology Lab LTFN & Center for Organic and Printed Electronics of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
09:45 - 10:15 Mass Volume Printing of Energy Harvesting Devices: Development of Antenna and Tunable Capacitor System,
Youmna Mouhamad, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating/SPECIFIC
10:15 - 10:45 Flexipower: A printed RF Energy Harvesting system,
Tim Mortensen, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
10:45 - 11:15 Networking Break
11:15 - 11:45 Rechargeable Batteries using Seawater as a Self-replenishing Cathode,
Christopher Phillips, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
11:45 - 12:15 Influence of Electrode Shape on Printed Battery Performance,
Michael Wendler, HdM/Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
12:15 - 12:30 Challenges and Conceptions of Screen printed Zinc-air Batteries,
Patrick Rassek, Stuttgart Media University, HdM/Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
12:30 - 13:00 Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Blends in Coated Flexible Substrates,
Joseph Morgan, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
13:00 - 14:00 Lunch
14:00 - 14:30 Formulation of Model Inks for Advanced Process Control,
David Beynon, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
14:30 - 15:00 Effect of Changes in Ink Formulation on the Rheological and Print Performance of a Model Carbon Screen Ink,
James Claypole, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
15:00 - 15:30 Networking Break
15:30 - 16:00 Synergistic Printing Techniques for Miniature EL Devices,
Matt Everett, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
16:00 - 16:30 The Design of a Printed Wearable Heater for Use in Elite Sport,
Andrew Claypole, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
16:30 - 17:00 Mechanical Properties of Pre-coated Metal Systems to Investigate Causes of Stress Whitening,
Emily Radley, Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating
17:00 Round up and Close

Keynote Presentation: "Graphene and other Nano materials – Short Term Commercial Applications for the Printing Market"

Ray Gibbs BA(Hons) FCA CEO - Haydale Graphene Industries plc

The use of the correct nano materials has a dramatic potential for generating new products for the printing and coating industry. Activated carbons and graphite has been used for years. New 2D and 3D materials, mainly carbon based now are generating products that meet the need for more conductivity, in stretchable materials. Inks that can possibly replace metal based inks. We have seen Graphene (not defined) loaded ski suits modelled and used by the French Ski team. The material is claimed to manage the wearers heat profile. But does it stop there? Smart textiles (wearables) is where a lot of effort is going using carbon nano materials. The IoT (Internet of Things) is a $150bn opportunity for the print industry.

In conjunction with the use of composites the ink and coatings industry has the ability to make game changing new products including incredibly sensitive sensors, 3D printing (or is it additive manufacturing).

In his opening address Ray Gibbs will look at the fast moving world of 2D and 3D new and existing materials that are applicable for the printing industry today and tomorrow.

"Challenges in Printing Smooth Functional Layers"

Tatyana Korochkina, David Gethin - WCPC

Printing functional layers is an area of significant interest for applications such as sensors, electronics, solar cells, and RFID due to low-cost fabrication and possibility of obtaining multifunctional devices over large areas. Simplified processing steps, simple patterning techniques, reduced materials wastage, and low fabrication costs make printing technologies very attractive for the cost-effective manufacturing. Over the years, a number of printing technologies have been developed to pattern a wide range of functional materials on diverse substrates. Printed electronics on polymer substrates opens new avenues for low-cost fabrication on areas larger than the standard wafers available commercially. Relatively "rough", low cost structural steels are among attractive metal substrates as they meet PV substrate requirements in terms of barrier to oxygen and water. However, their roughness needs to be reduced significantly to make it compatible with thin-film solar cells (TFSC) such as chalcopyrite (CIGS), amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) or organic (OPV). A cost effective alternative solution is an introduction of intermediate layer(s) (IL) compatible with printing processes between the steel substrate and the TFSC. In addition to reduction in roughness of the steel surface to avoid shorts during TFSC manufacturing, the IL can prevent diffusion of chemical elements (e.g. Cr, Ni) from the steel surface and provide electrical insulation between the steel substrate and the TFSC back contact electrode to enable development of TFSC modules by serial cell interconnection. Recent publications on IL deposition on steel substrates reported several drawbacks including high roughness, poor adhesion, lack of electrical insulation, etc.

In this study, the SiOx IL deposited combining non-vacuum sol-gel technique developed at ITMA with lab-scale contact printing techniques developed at WCPC solved these problems. The SiOx based IL was deposited on non-treated steels such as AISI430 stainless steel, and DX51D bare cold rolled low carbon steel as well as DX51D hot-dip galvanized with Zn or Al which was cold rolled to achieve the desired final thickness. Several batches of sol-gel were prepared for life time tests and printing trials. Several new formulations of sol-gel were developed to match the processing window of each printing process in terms of viscosity and solvent evaporation. Results of extensive characterisation of sol-gel solutions and ILs printed onto four steel substrates are reported. We have highlighted critical challenges in achieving smooth insulating IL.

"Nano-materials deposition and the morphology of the subsequent deposits"

David Shaw - WCPC

The global flat glass industry, forecast to be worth $100 billion in 2016, is still a substantial growth sector with a wide range of products available on the market, within a variety of sectors. As with many established technologies there is a constant quest to identify the next market changing product or niche market area.

Transparent conductors are a ubiquitous material in modern life, with uses from heated/fog resistant windows to electronic displays and solar cells, as such any improvements in the cost and capability of these materials is of great interest. All of which bring additional benefits via the use of coating technology, traditionally applied via high capital cost vacuum processes. Previous work in this area has predominantly focused on finding replacements for ITO coatings due to growing concerns over factors such as Indium scarcity.

In the interests of improving the functionality of these pre-existing products, or adding functionality to new products, the additive nature of printing is seen as an excellent target point for investigating this avenue. Digital printing techniques would seem to offer an excellent option for this due the fine feature sizes and rapid turnaround capabilities of these techniques. This would fit in with the requirements of improving the pre-existing products as it allows the capability to deposit fine conductive tracks with a minimal visible 'footprint'.

In contrast, this body of work looks to augment existing coatings to provide improvements to the conductivity of these layers whilst minimising any degrading effects to transmission or inducements of hazing. Bar casting, spin coating, drop formation and inkjet printing methods have been utilised to deposit silver nano-particles and nano-wires onto various substrates, with these methods providing a range of deposition conditions in regards to shear and impact velocity. These methods have been selected in order to identify if these conditions can be utilised to optimise properties of optical transmission and resistance values for new layer combinations.

"Characterisation of Ink Transfer for Functional and Graphic Flexo Printing Applications"

Sakulrat Foulston - WCPC

Predicting the volume of ink transfer in the flexo printing process can help the operator to predict the print quality of the end products. Further knowledge in this area will help to improve the print quality and consistency, and therefore increase productivity; whilst reducing the operational cost and minimising material waste. For this reason ink transfer volume calculation has been the subject of many investigations, however due to the difficulty in the measurement of this quantity has very limited success. Most investigations have been conducted through measurement of indirect related parameters such as optical density and tone gain of the printed substrates. This investigation aims to determine the ink transfer between the anilox cells and printing plate by measuring the empty anilox cells before inking, and then the anilox cells were measured again after inking using an Alicona Inifinite Focus Microscope and subsequently measured again following printing. Therefore, the ink transfer volume from the anilox cells to the printing plate can be directly measured. An RK flexiproof 100 printing press was used with ceramic anilox rolls of 349LPI with 5.89cc/m2 and 661LPI with 2.63cc/m2. The use of 2 printing plates; one solid and one made up of tonal patches were utilised. The dot area coverages of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% were measured on 100LPI plates. The operation condition changed with 2 printing speeds; 50 and 90m/min, whilst the other parameters were kept constant. For industrial interest, the ink transfer between the anilox cells and plates was investigated to identify a correlation with the printed substrates by measuring the optical density of the printed substrates.

"Investigation into Rewetting and Removal of Flexographically Printed Ink Films"

Andrea Greenacre - WCPC

A small number of defects were found in a batch of printed containers where dry ink films were found to have transferred onto end users. This project investigated the causes behind this rewetting and subsequent removal of the ink, including developing a standard test to evaluate rewetting of dry ink films and establishing which ingredients or blend of ingredients in the products was the cause of the ink film layer failure. A literature review was undertaken prior to testing to investigate whether similar problems had previously arisen on PE coated paper. The initial proposed cause put forth from the partner company was hand sanitizer or similar products. This was expanded upon to include a range of products which end users could have come into contact with prior to using the product, such as perfumed body sprays, moisturisers and suncreams. Initial investigations supported the proposal that alcohol based products were responsible for the removal of the ink from the printed containers, and this was used for the basis of experimental testing of the product.

"The Science behind Flexographic Printing Uniformity"

Miles Morgan - WCPC

Uniformity is crucial in the printing of electronic devices. Understanding the causes of non-uniformity in flexographic printing is therefore of great interest in the pursuit of low-cost, high volume printed electronics However, this challenge is compounded by the rheological complexity of printable fluids for printed electronics. The present work looks to better understand the causes of non-uniformity in roll-to-roll printing – a process that involves both shear and extensional flow – focussing on the role of ink elasticity.

Boger fluids have a constant shear viscosity and yet display elasticity. By formulating water-based printable Boger fluids the effects of elasticity on flexographic print uniformity have been assessed. The inks consisted of dyed solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with varying weights of high molecular weight polyacrylamide (PAM), the latter material providing the elastic component. The inks were characterised rheologically both in shear and extension and were printed via flexography.

Non-uniformity was observed on all prints in the form of viscous fingering – finger-like features occurring along the print. The figure shows prints from inks with increasing elasticity from (a)-(d). It was seen that finger length became progressively less with increased ink elasticity, shown in (a)-(c), before ink transfer and finger width also decreased significantly in (d), the print from the most elastic ink.

This work used specially formulated printable Boger fluids to find that ink elasticity has a considerable influence on the uniformity of flexographic prints. This has profound implications in the emergent field of printed electronics where uniformity is crucial to device functionality.

This research is carried out as part of EPSRC grant reference EP/M008827/1

"Printed electronics and biosensors at INTI-CMNB"

Leandro N. Monsalve - INTI-CMNB

This presentation gives an overview of the ongoing research in the field of biosensors at the National Institute for Industrial Technology (INTI). A portable device for the Point-of-Care diagnosis of infectious diseases has been developed and tested. Regarding printed electronics upscaling for the fabrication of disposable cartridges for the device is presented. Design, materials and process issues for the optimization of costs and functionality were addressed.

"Screen Printing of Functional Materials and Sensors"

Sarah-Jane Potts - WCPC

This project focusses on the effects of the screen printing process on the orientation and alignment of the particles in the print, as well as the resolution, surface roughness and overall quality of the print. A range of studies are being conducted on a selection of screen printing inks to determine how modifying various parameter settings, such as pressure and snap-off, impacts upon these features. These include White Light Interferometer analyses to assess the surface roughness, slump and line resolution of the prints. As well Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses to evaluate the orientation and particle alignment of the prints.

By investigating these effects, the performance of a variety of inks can be predicted. Providing a better understanding of the optimal inks and process parameters to be used for a particular application.

Initial analyses have been conducted with silver nanowire and carbon nanotube (CNT) based inks, since these are among the easiest inks to visualise on an SEM. These initial results will then form the basis for a more in depth analysis of a wide range of screen-printable complex inks.

"Fine Network of Conductive Tracks on Flexible Substrate"

John Lau - WCPC

Printed electronic devices such as electroluminescent displays, organic light emitting diodes, and photovoltaic devices, all require transparent, electronically conductive materials for their electrodes. In situations where flexible devices are desired, transparent electrodes produced from Indium doped Tin Oxide (ITO) coated polymer films have been a popular choice. Due to material scarcity, cost and the desire for greater device performance, alternatives to ITO could prove beneficial. One viable approach is to produce an electrode by combining highly transparent substrates with a fine printed grid of opaque, highly conductive metallic ink. This provides a great opportunity to fine tune the optical and electronic performance of the resulting electrode for specific applications.

Printing a network of sub 30 micron, highly conductive fine tracks onto flexible substrates of over a meter squared in size is technologically challenging. Furthermore the difficulty of the challenge is increased by the complexity of the pattern used by this project. In some circumstances, printed tracks and substrates could get damaged during the printing and sintering processes. In this study a range of printing techniques for conductive inks are being investigated. Some of these techniques have demonstrated the possibility of allowing extremely fine, highly conductive tracks to be printed onto flexible substrates.

"Optical Method for Measuring the Thickness and the Profile of Conductive Inks for Flexographic Printing"

Marcelo D. Sallese - Universidad Technologica Nacional, Argentina

Optical coherent tomographyis a non-destructive technique that allows obtaining threedimensional images from the surface or the inner of an optical scattering media. In this paper it is proposed with the aim of providing thicknesses and surface profiles in conductive inks. The system is based on an interferometric method with a white laser as the light source in the configuration of Fourier Domain Tomography.

The set-up allows measuring axial distances up to 3 millimeters with a spatial resolution on the order of micron and a surface scanning in the order of the centimeter.Experimental results are presented in measuring the topography of conductive inks over different substrate with an after-image processing that allows the determination of volume and surface roughness of the sample. All samples were printed on production equipment by a flexographic technique using water-based inks.

"Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing Pilot Line with In-line Optical Metrology for Quality Control and Laser Patterning for Mass Production of OPVs"

Argiris Laskarakis - Head of the Organic Electronics Group of the Nanotechnology Lab LTFN & Center for Organic and Printed Electronics of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Organic and Printed Photovoltaics (OPVs) onto plastic substrates have attracted an enormous interest, due to their several advantages that include lightweight, conformability to curved surfaces and fabrication by low-cost production processes as roll-to-roll (r2r) printing. The main factors that can determine the final efficiency of the OPV device and can ensure the market exploitation of OPVs for consumer applications is the optimization of the photoactive layer morphology and the reproducibility of the printed OPV layers quality in large areas and in different batches.

In this presentation, we report on the advances for the mass production of flexible OPVs by a unique r2r printing pilot line that is equipped with state-of-the-art ultra-fast pulsed laser system for the patterning of OPV layers, such as electron donors (e.g. polythiophenes) and acceptors (e.g. fullerene derivatives, PC60BM, PC70BM, ICBA, etc.), transparent (e.g. ZnO, PEDOT:PSS) and metal electrodes. Laser processes are attractive as alternative patterning techniques to photolithographic methods due to their higher resolution and the advantage for implementation to r2r manufacturing processes for the low-cost and large area production of flexible OPVs. We describe the in-line processes (P1, P2, P3) for the patterning of the OPV interconnected cells by using an ultra-fast laser that utilizes 532 nm wavelength and picosecond pulses, and the effect on the pattern quality and functionality.

Finally, we describe in detail the novel methodology of the optical metrology for quality control of r2r printed OPV nanomaterials and devices by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) and Raman Spectroscopy (RS) on a r2r printing pilot line. The in-line SE monitoring of thickness, uniformity and optical properties of the printed P3HT:PCBM nanolayer on PET/ITO/ZnO were performed by an ultra-fast Multi-Wavelength Phase Modulated Spectroscopic Ellipsometer adapted on the r2r pilot line. Moreover, RS and photoluminescence (PL) metrology were implemented and combined with sophisticated modelling procedures and methodologies to obtain significant information on the optical properties, homogeneity, thickness, surface roughness and quality.

"Mass Volume Printing of Energy Harvesting Devices: Development of Antenna and Tunable Capacitor System"

Youmna Mouhamad - WCPC/SPECIFIC

The development of low cost printed energy harvesting device powered by near-field communication (NFC) would facilitate the wider adoption of NFC-enabled applications in consumer packaging, document and brand security. Other applications include wireless sensor networks for defence, healthcare and medical devices. The key technological challenge is the development of high gain antenna and tunable capacitor system to maximise the harvested power output. This work reports development of an energy harvesting power module, in particular we will focus on the integration of screen printed antenna and capacitor. The capacitor feature switchable interconnects for tunability. The achieved capacitances showed excellent consistency and conform to the predicted values. This enables accurate tuning of the antenna frequency response to 13.56 MHz. We will report on the application of this technology to power a temperature sensor. The results showed huge potential for the proposed technology to be further explored.

This work is part of the haRFest project funded by the Innovate UK, led by PragmatIC in partnership with CPI Innovation Services and EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Large-Area Electronics, represented by its academic partners University of Cambridge and the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC, Swansea University).

"Flexipower: A printed RF Energy Harvesting system"

Tim Mortensen - WCPC

With the increasing demand for low power internet of things (IoT) devices the use of batteries as a power source will result in an increasing number of logistical and physical issues. For small form-factor sensors, especially those produced using large area printing techniques, the additional cost and bulk of the battery and the impracticality of recharging or replacing depleted batteries can outweigh their potential benefits.

Energy harvesting can instead be used to power devices and wireless energy harvesting is of increasing interest in the world of printed electronics for powering low energy devices from nearby radio frequency (RF) sources. These sources can be dedicated transmitters or ambient RF signals such as mobile phone signals or WiFi.

FLEXIPOWER, an EPSRC funded project has developed a printed energy harvesting system suitable for high volume manufacture, as part of the CIMLAE group. The energy harvesting devices have been tested with RF sources up to 900 MHz. We aim to improve the capabilities of the system to be compatible with the 2.4GHz frequency used in WiFi and Bluetooth to utilise some of the most abundant RF signals in the home and office, although the available power at this frequency will be very low. The current lower frequency systems allow for many tens of milliwatts of power to be transferred over distances of several centimetres to a printed antenna and rectifier to provide power to a range of devices. This talk details a number of design considerations and use cases for such a system and describes the technologies developed to create such systems.

"Rechargeable Batteries using Seawater as a Self-replenishing Cathode"

Chris Phillips - WCPC

The transition from non-renewable to renewable energy sources is, in large part, dependent on efficient, safe, inexpensive and eco-friendly energy storage systems to cope with the intermittent power produced by energy sources such as solar and wind.

Battery technologies such as lead-acid, metal-air and lithium ion pose problems in terms of environmental impact, safety and high cost. This project therefore is exploring a novel technology, currently at the proof of concept stage, using sea-water as a positive electrode (cathode) in a system which is intermediate between a secondary sodium-ion battery and a fuel cell. The salt in sea-water is an inexhaustible source of sodium ions that are transferred to the negative electrode (anode) through an ionic-conductor membrane while charging. During discharge the sodium ions shuffle back from the anode to the sea-water. Potential advantages are low cost, high safety and negligible environmental impact compared to other battery technologies.

At Swansea University, a collaborative EPSRC research project in partnership with Oxford University, has started aiming to take the sea-water hybrid fuel cell from the proof-of-concept stage to a viable technology for large scale energy storage through the optimisation of constituent components, development of scalable manufacturing processes and validation in a relevant environment. This presentation will describe the background as well as current progresses on the anode material and its optimisation for sodium ions.

This project is funded by EPSRC Reference: EP/N013727/1

"Influence of electrode shape on printed battery performance"

Michael Wendler - HdM Stuttgart/WCPC

Thin and flexible printed energy storage devices are in great demand, especially for use in smart objects like RFID tags, medical strips or autonomous sensor systems.

Compared to conventional button-cell manufacturing processes the screen printing technology provides a highly flexible and comparable cheap manufacturing process, being it short run or mass production. Besides that, screen printing offers the flexibility to create customisable battery geometries at variable power scales. The performance of such a printed energy storage device is correlating to the shape of the electrodes.

The battery designs under test are in coplanar cell configuration. This cell type enables variation of the electrode shape easily. Four different shapes of primary Zn/MnO2 batteries have been analysed.

To determine printed battery performance, the capacity, the open-circuit potential (OCP) and the cell impedances are important factors. Here, the capacitance [C] is the amount of charge [Q] which can be taken from a battery during its discharge process. Furthermore, it is influenced by the discharge current, the discharge time, the battery temperature as well as the cut-off voltage at which the discharge process is stopped in order to prevent cell damage.

In this work the galvanostatic discharge at constant current (CC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to investigate the influence of electrode shape on printed battery performance.

"Challenges and Conceptions of Screen printed Zinc-air Batteries"

Patrick Rassek - HdM Stuttgart/WCPC

The worldwide demand for cheap and eco-friendly electrical energy storage systems having high energy densities is growing continuously. Metal-air systems with the electrochemical systems of zinc-air batteries in particular, are promising candidates as they meet the demanded requirements with respect to energy density, material availability and sustainability.

Recently, fully printed zinc-carbon batteries were successfully demonstrated and will reach market maturity soon. Compared to zinc-carbon batteries, the construction principle of zinc-air batteries consists of an open cell design with ambient air taking part on the electrochemical redox reaction. Challenges in making this electrochemical system accessible to screen printing technology are represented with the complex construction principle of the positive electrode consisting of a hydrophobic but gas-permeable membrane, a metallic current collector and a catalytic layer. The material composition and the morphology of the positive electrode with its gas diffusion layer (GDL) significantly affects battery performance and enables control of electrical parameters at the same time. This presentation will give an overview on the challenges and approaches to make this electrochemical system accessible to screen printing technology.

"Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Blends in Coated Flexible Substrates"

Joseph Morgan - WCPC

Abstract Coming Soon...

"Formulation of Model Inks for Advanced Process Control"

David Beynon - WCPC

Printing inks are complex fluids with associated complex rheological behaviour. The inks must have the correct rheological profile for the particular printing process and is affected by the exact components of the ink. Traditionally there are a number of additives used in inks in addition to the pigment, binder and solvent system. These additives are there to modify the base formulation including surfactants, viscosity modification and surface tension adjustment. These tweaks all combine to produce an ink that is optimum for the process however the developments of new inks can take an extended time due to the iterative trial and error methods employed. The ARPLAE project aims to vastly decrease formulation time by using rheological measurement to inform formulation i.e. by comparing rheology to printability of controlled model inks the factors influencing formulation can be identified and modified for optimised performance.

In order to conduct rheological and printability testing first a model ink system is needed. This model ink system needs to be capable of representing the entire operating range for the process (screen printing in this instance), must be formulated from the minimum of ingredients and formulated from scientifically relevant sources (i.e. reliable, repeatable and traceable). This presentation details the processes used and trials conducted in formulating a range of model functional inks consisting of only functional particle, resin and solvent.

"Effect of Changes in Ink Formulation on the Rheological and Print Performance of a Model Carbon Screen Ink"

James Claypole - WCPC

The formulation of an ink is a critical part of the printing process and is often over looked in favour of other parameters, such as the press settings. The formulation is of particular importance when considering functional materials for printed electronics, where large particle sizes and other functional constrains cause problems when using the same techniques previously employed in graphics inks. To understand how changes in different parts of the ink formulation impacted on the print performance a model ink system was devised comprising of just three components; polymer, solvent and particulate. A range of graphite inks was prepared by varying both the solids concentration and polymer content of the resin. A rheological examination of each ink was performed looking at viscosity and viscoelastic properties both at rest and under a unidirectional shear flow. The print performance was obtained by screen printing each ink under a constant set of conditions. The prints were measured by white light interferometry and for electrical performance for a range of fine lines and across a solid area.

"Synergistic Printing Techniques for Miniature EL Devices"

Matt Everett - WCPC

Indirect Electroluminescence (EL) emits light when an AC voltage is placed across two conductive plates that are electrically insulated by the phosphor material and occasionally a dielectric medium. Recent work has shown that addressing them in a traditional x-y fashion creates excessive crosstalk and results in poor pixel definition. A more direct approach where each pixel has a physical connection has shown to produce excellent pixel definition at the cost of a large electronic driving package size. A further limitation is reliable track spacing between each connector. To investigate if any compatibility issues could arise, aerosol printed silver conductors were deposited onto glass followed by screen printed deposition of electroluminescent layers to create a miniature EL device.

"The Design of a Printed Wearable Heater for Use in Elite Sport"

Andrew Claypole - WCPC

A common problem in elite sport is the loss of manual dexterity in cold environments. This paper looks into the feasibility of creating a wearable, low voltage, printed heater, using functionalised graphene nano-platelet (f-GNP) enabled inks and volume print techniques, for use in sport. Different formulations of the conductive inks were printed onto flexible substrates and their electrical performance analysed. Based on approximate analysis of the required thermal input, a low voltage heater capable of producing temperatures of 37°C was successfully developed and printed onto flexible, non-stretch textiles. This study could lead to the development of a viable prototype.

"Mechanical Properties of Pre-coated Metal Systems to Investigate Causes of Stress Whitening"

Emily Radley - WCPC

The aesthetic appeal of pre-coated metal systems is adversely affected by stress whitening. Through induction of stress whitening in the pre-coated metal system, the mechanical properties can be studied to investigate the severity and origin of whitening. The use of microhardness testing and infra-red spectroscopy will be presented as methods to study the mechanical properties of the pre-coated metal system. Potential solutions to stress whitening will also be presented, including the incorporation of micro fibrillated cellulose, into the initial resin used in coatings, to act as a toughening agent to obviate the onset of stress whitening.

Ray Gibbs- BA (Hons) FCA CEO - Haydale Graphene Industries plc

Ray was appointed CEO of Haydale in January 2013. Since then he has set the company strategy and defined the market focus into composites, inks/coatings and energy harvesting, culminating in a successful IPO on the AIM market in April 2014, raising $10m with a market capitalisation of $25m. Since then a second “oversubscribed” funding of $9m was concluded in November 2015, to finance expansion and growth plans. Current market value is $50m.

With its unique patented plasma functionalisation technology, Haydale is strategically positioned to enable raw material producers move up the nano materials value chain and at the same time provide solutions to product manufacturers looking to enhance the performance of their offering with appropriate and unique additive materials. Those materials are not only Graphene but other 2D and 3D nano particles where adding a combination of materials has even greater potential product performance improvements.

Ray has been involved at Board level with high tech industry for over 20 years, with sales ranging from £500,000 to £500m.

Tatyana Korochkina - WCPC

Tatyana obtained a degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Voronezh, Russia in 1978. She worked for the Metal-Polymer Research Institute of Belarus Academy of Sciences from 1978 to 1999, while also completing her PhD. Since 1999, Tatyana has been a senior researcher in the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating. Her areas of expertise include both numerical modelling and experimental investigation in all aspects of the process for different applications including printed electronics, sensors and energy harvesting.

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David Shaw - WCPC

David is a currently undertaking his EngD at Swansea University in association with SPECIFIC and the WCPC.

He has previously attended Cardiff University where he attained a BSc degree in Physics, before attending Swansea University and gaining a Masters of Research degree in Materials Engineering. For his masters research he worked in partnership with Tata Steel, performing research in the area of corrosion science; with a particular focus on the corrosion dynamics and characteristics of tin coated steel in a range of acidic environments. His current research is focused on adding further functionality to glass substrates.

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Sakulrat Foulston - WCPC

Sakulrat started working as a system engineering assistant, graduating with a Bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Mahidol University in Thailand. She then joined an alkaline manufacturer and worked for over 5 years as a marketing executive. After moving to Swansea, she resumed her studies in 2008, gaining an MSc in financial management prior to an MRes qualification in environmental management. Currently, studying engineering doctorate at WCPC in ink transfer in the flexographic process after receiving a scholarship under MATTER (Manufacturing Advances Through Training Engineering Researchers) scheme.

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Andrea Greenacre - WCPC

Andrea is in her first year of study working towards an EngD in Materials Engineering with the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC) in collaboration with ICMPrint. She obtained a Masters of Mechanical Engineering, first class honours in 2015 from Swansea University, and is now expanding her knowledge to the world of flexographic printing of functional materials.

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Miles Morgan - WCPC

Miles is currently studying for a PhD in Nanotechnology at the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC) in Swansea University. He has a bachelor’s degree in physics and completed a master’s degree in nanotechnology at Swansea University, during which he worked at the WCPC to enhance transparent conducting films containing carbon nanomaterials. Miles’ current work involves the use and development of rheometric techniques to study extensional flows and surface instabilities in flexographic printing.

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Leandro N Monsalve - Centre for Micro and Nanoelectronics (CMNB) of the National Institute for Industrial Technology (INTI) in Argentina

Leandro N MonsalveDr. Leandro Monsalve is responsible of the platform for functional and printed electronics at the Centre for Micro and Nanoelectronics (CMNB) of the National Institute for Industrial Technology (INTI) in Argentina. He has a M.Sc. in Chemistry and a Ph.D. in the field of Organic Chemistry and Biotechnology from the University of Buenos Aires. He performed postdoctoral research in polymer composites and he is now Research staff of the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET). His research lines involve the development of new functional composite materials for flexible and organic electronics.

Sarah-Jane Potts - WCPC

Sarah-Jane is currently studying for an EngD in Materials Engineering at the Welsh Centre of Printing and Coating (WCPC) at Swansea University. She has a Master’s Degree (MEng) in Product Design Engineering from Swansea University which she completed in 2015. Since starting her EngD, Sarah-Jane has partaken a number of materials engineering and chemistry based modules as well as started to conduct research for her project on screen printing for icmPrint Consortium. Currently, Sarah-Jane’s work focuses on investigating the impact of the screen printing process on the orientation and alignment of particles in the print.

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John Lau - WCPC

Yin Cheung Lau (John) received the MEng degree in Chemical Engineering from Swansea University in 2013. He as previously interned with Bayer MaterialScience and Haemair Ltd. He is currently pursuing the EngD degree in Materials Engineering at Swansea University and his current research interest is the fabrication of conductive patterns on flexible substrates.

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Marcelo D. Sallese - Universidad Technologica Nacional, Argentina

I'm PhD student in Delta Regional School of National Technology University. In 2014 I graduated as a Chemical Engineer. Currently, I’m work in Laboratory of Optoelectronic and Applied Metrology where I do my thesis and I work in application of interferometric techniques for the characterization of different kinds of materials. Simultaneously, I’m doing courses in preparing flexographic inks in the Gutenberg Foundation where I am learning about the printing process and chemistry and materials involved. I’m 27 years old and I live in Campana, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Argiris Laskarakis - Head of the Organic Electronics Group of the Nanotechnology Lab LTFN & Center for Organic and Printed Electronics of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Dr. A. Laskarakis is the Head of the Organic Electronics Group of the Nanotechnology Lab LTFN & Center for Organic and Printed Electronics of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

He is specialist in the fabrication of flexible organic electronics nanomaterials (organic semiconductors, transparent electrodes, graphene, barriers for encapsulation) and devices (e.g. organic photovoltaics, organic thin film transistors) by vacuum and printing methods. Also, he is expert in optical metrology of inorganic, organic and hybrid nanostructured materials by IR-Vis-fUV Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, and Raman Spectroscopy as well as on the computational modelling of optical properties of inorganic-organic-hybrid thin films.

His work includes more than 60 peer-reviewed publications in International Scientific Journals, 4 book chapters, more than 70 presentations in International Scientific Conferences, and since 1997 he has participated in more than 14 EU funded R&D projects. He is an appointed expert for the European Commission and member of the Evaluation Committee of several FP7 and H2020 EU Projects. Finally, for the past 9 years he is responsible for the organization of the International Symposium on Flexible Organic Electronics (ISFOE).

Youmna Mouhamad - SPECIFIC

Dr Youmna Mouhamad is currently a technology transfer fellow at SPECIFIC in Swansea University. She is working on HI-PROPSTEC a project funded by Innovate UK which aims to improve the conductivity of transparent conductive oxide films by printing copper grids.

Youmna has a PhD in polymer physics from Sheffield University. She joined the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating as a research scientist shortly after obtaining her PhD. She worked on the formulation of carbon based inks for various applications including, a piezoresistive ink for large area pressure sensor and the development of a flexible ink for heated garments. Two patents were filed for these innovative technologies. She then took on the printing of an antenna and tunable capacitor system for an energy harvesting module as part of the haRFest project co-funded by Innovate UK.

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Tim Mortensen - WCPC

Tim obtained an MPhys degree from Swansea University in 2009 and completed his EPSRC funded PhD on the “Manipulation of the magnetron orbits of particles and clouds in a two stage buffer gas accumulator” at the same institution in 2013. During his research with antimatter systems at Swansea and later in Saclay, Paris, he not only gathered and analysed experimental data, but designed and built a range of bespoke hardware and software solutions to facilitate simplified data acquisition and analysis. Upon his return to the UK in mid-2014, Tim was offered a role on a project in the field of printed electronics at the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC) to create a low cost printed pressure sensor. The project far exceeded its expectations. The technology behind the sensor has been patented and is in the process of being commercialised by industrial partners of the University. He now works on the FLEXIPOWER project, an EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Large Area Electronics funded project developing printed wireless energy harvesting systems.

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Christopher Phillips - WCPC

Chris is a senior researcher at The Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating working on materials and deposition methods for electronics, energy storage and biomedical applications. He has worked extensively with companies in printing and related industries with product development, trouble-shooting and environmental compliance.

Current Project: A new concept for advanced large-scale energy storage: secondary batteries with seawater as open self-replenishing cathode

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Michael Wendler - HdM Stuttgart/WCPC

Michael Wendler started his print technology expertise with a vocational training in Screen Printing Technology in 1998. After his studies on Print and Media Technologies he received his Engineer degree from Stuttgart Media University (HdM) in 2007. Since April 2012 Michael is enrolled as part-time PhD-Student at Swansea University focussing on research of screen-printed batteries. His studies are supported and sponsored by VARTA Microbattery GmbH. Michael co-founded ELMERIC functional printing GmbH in may 2014. An innovative company which link electrical engineering to print technologies.

Patrick Rassek - HdM Stuttgart/WCPC

Patrick received his M.Sc. in Print and Media Technology from Stuttgart Media University in 2013. He started his studies in the field of screen printed energy storage systems in 2012 at Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg before joining the department of Innovative Applications of the Printing Technologies IAD of Stuttgart Media University in January 2014. His current research work focusses on the development and characterization of screen printed zinc-air batteries.

Joe Morgan - WCPC

Joseph Morgan is a postgraduate research student in the Welsh Centre of Printing and Coating (WCPC) at Swansea University and a member of the M2A Academy.

Joseph attained a bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering (1st Class Hons.) from Swansea University in 2014 and is currently working toward an Engineering Doctorate within the WCPC. The EngD scheme is a full scholarship which is partly funded through a sponsor company 'Haydale Ltd'and 'MATTER'. In this current position, Joseph has undertaken several masters level modules to broaden the knowledge gained during his time as an undergraduate student and enable him to work towards developing new technologies through experimental research within the printed electronics sector. Joseph has an interest in minimising environmental impact through intelligent engineering solutions and strives to consider potential implications of the technologies he is investigating.

Whilst not undertaking research at the university, Joseph spends time at the sponsor company site making use of their advanced laboratory facilities and developing a working knowledge of the company.

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David Beynon - WCPC

David is a Research Officer based in the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating. Having completed a PhD researching ink transfer mechanisms in flexographic printing David’s research interests have grown to include graphics, electronic and functional printed materials. Recent projects have included printed functional devices including electromagnetics, sensors and rheological characterisation of functional inks working in collaboration with academic and industrial partners. David recently completed a period working for the Centre for Innovative Manufacture in Large Area Electronics (CIMLAE) project formulating functional inks for the ARPLAE and Flexipower projects and is currently working on commercialisation of printed sensors.

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James Claypole - WCPC

James graduated from Cardiff University with a degree in Civil Engineering. He has recently finished his PhD at Swansea University in advanced rheology of printable materials. He worked as an intern at the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating during his undergraduate study and is now working as a post-doctoral research assistant at Swansea University working on advanced rheology and its impact on the ability to print electronics funded as part of the EPSRC Centre of Innovative of Large Area Electronics based in WCPC

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Matt Everett - WCPC

Matt is a third year postgraduate EngD at Swansea University, sponsored by EPSRC and DST Innovations. Matt has also produced work for the WCPC during his undergraduate study and graduated in 2013 with a Masters of Mechanical Engineering, first class honours after also completing a year in industry with Britten-Norman Aircraft on the Isle of Wight.

Matt is researching Electroluminescent (EL) technology for his EngD project, working closely with DST Innovations in Bridgend, South Wales. The project looks at ink and substrate properties as well as ultimately the best method of manufacture for EL red, green, blue displays. He is currently using screen printing as a manufacture method for the displays as the process lends itself well to the layers used in EL technology.

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Andrew Claypole - WCPC

Andrew obtained first class honours in Sports Science and Engineering at Swansea University. Having spent time as an undergraduate gaining experience working within the prestigious Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC), performance testing printed silver heaters, he came up with a concept for a printed wearable heater using functionalised graphene nano-platelet inks. Following his third year project in which he successfully developed a low power, flexible, wearable printed heater, which was subsequently patented, he was offered the opportunity to further develop this device for his EngD in Materials engineering at the Materials to Manufacture Academy, Swansea University, funded by Haydale. Working within the world leading print research group at WCPC will give Andrew access to their fantastic research facilities at Swansea University’s new Innovation Bay Campus, as well as the facilities of their worldwide partners, allowing not only for ink and process optimisation through analytical techniques but also analysis of the heater’s thermal and electrical performance. Working in collaboration with the A-STEM sports research group at Swansea University, Andrew will utilise his background in sports science to perform physiological experiments to help him optimise the heater design to maximise the sporting performance benefits.

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Emily Radley - WCPC

Emily is currently studying for an EngD in Materials science and Engineering at the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC) in Swansea University. She has a bachelor’s degree in Chemistry from Sussex University which she completed in 2014. Since starting her EngD in Swansea Emily has undergone a number of materials science modules as well as working with the project’s sponsor company Beckers to isolate stress whitening in pre-coated metal (PCM) samples. Currently, Emily’s work concerns the development of mechanical and chemical tests to determine the mechanisms stress whitening can occur by in different PCM systems. As well as accurately imaging samples to compare micro structure of different stress whitened materials.

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